Can you please advise the settings in Cura that you are using - that will help us considerably.
1. in Cura sink the part into the print bed say 1mm - Cura advanced menu\Quality\cut off object bottom - set to 1.0
2. maybe your nozzle to bed measurement is too large - have you double checked this?
3. As an Ultimaker beginner do not set your 1st layer resolution lower than 0.300 Cura advanced menu\Quality\initial layer thickness - set to 0.3
Looking at the vertical walls where you have the poor finish, what is the thickness of those walls in your modelling software?
Do you have examples of stuff you couldn't get to work? What version of Cura did you use?
If you could share these with us, we can fix them.
The objects in your pictures actually look like as if they are printed with faulty material.
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