If your cables are damages, maybe you could use some silicone as insulator? Normally, silicone is heat resistant up to 220°C ... 250°C; but there may also be high-temp versions. Or use shrink wrapping for cables (not sure if that is the correct English term): the sort of black tubing that you put around cables and then shrink with heat from a heat gun or soldering iron.
- 3 years later...
I had the same problem after repairing my Ultimaker 2+ recently. I couldn't find any obvious short. Turned out I either got a defective heater cartridge or I damaged it during installation (probably the latter). Using a multimeter I saw that the heater had a resistance of ~1.3 ohms. That was causing it to try to draw way too much current. I ordered a replacement heater and the new one had a good resistance of ~19 ohms. I installed that one, and am back in business. So if you have the same issue and it is not a short at the heater block, try testing the resistance of the heater cartridge.
If anyone encounter this problem I found that the heater element wire was touching the back of the metal shroud for the fans. It burnt through the nylon wrapping and was shorting on the shroud. If you are luck not much damage will come to your wires and they will still be insulated. I bent the shroud back so it wasn't touching and now it works fine again. I guess next thing to look at it how to keep the shroud from getting hot/ touching the nozzle.
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