I have found that sometimes the filament oozes out sideways in the head, and gets jammed there. So even if you try to yank it out of the feeder it will simply not budge.
So what I do is to remove the bowden tube from on top of the print head, and then slowly wind the filament backwards using the "move material" menu option, and with some care snip off the end of the filament that will probably have a little shoulder. Then back goes the bowden tube.
What you have to bear in mind is that the motors are not all that powerful, so if the filament gets stuck and the motor won't pull it out, chances are that the filament is stuck somewhere. Pulling on the too hard on the filament is probably going to cause problems. So generally speaking, you should not need a great deal of force to extract filament manually. If you do, then pulling hard is not going to resolve the problem.
Normally you would just use "change material" on the front panel and then pull on the filament from the back. If the filament snaps off inside the feeder then you'll have to remove the Bowden tube from one or both ends. To do that you slide the plastic horseshoe retaining clip out (at the hotend be careful not to let it drop down inside the hole for the dual nozzle!), push down on the white collet to relieve tension on the tube, then pull the tube out. Doing this at the feeder end only should let you get a hold of enough filament to haul it out (with nozzle heated up for filament change).
Don't lose the horseshoes! When putting the Bowden clips back, first push the tube itself as far in as it will go - you should feel it seating. Then pull up on the white collet to grab the tube, and slide retaining clip in to hold it there.
Try to get the feeder tension back where it was before, and print out Robert's replacement feeder asap. The variant I like is this one here: https://www.youmagine.com/designs/yet-another-ultimaker-2-feeder because it helps guide the filament in a straight line into the feeder.
Not only is it easier to tweak tension on Robert's feeder, it's also easier to correct after minor calamities like this one.
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