Plus a couple of points. If you are printing something that gets narrower as you reach the top. e.g. a church spire, Cura or whatever slicer you are using will slow the print speed to maintain the minimum layer print time you have set.
Assuming you have no blockages or feed path problems then if you under extrude you either need to increase your extruder temp. or lower you print speed because the filament has too high a viscosity for the printer to feed it though the nozzle at the required speed.
If your model has overhangs then often you will get a better surface finish if you print slow (and fans on 100%)
The feeder turns according to a combination of all your settings. from your filament diameter to your print speed to your nozzle diameter. It's all calculated based on putting down the right amount of material. It will turn slower when you print slower, or if you want less material extruded.
So your first layer would turn slow (since it's usually around 20mm/s) and then when your print reaches full speed (usually around 50mm/s it will turn accordingly faster to ensure that the right amount of material is coming out of the nozzle for how fast it is going. There is no constant set speed in which your extruder turns it's all relative to everything else.
If you increase flow rate, the extruder will turn faster.
The flow rate is a percentage, if you're under extruding for some reason, you can increase flow rate on the fly. Or decrease if you're over extruding. I wouldn't recommend this though, usually it means something else is off like your filament diameter or bed level. It's better to get a proper start than a bandaid solution fix like flow rate adjustments.
You adjust print speed according to your precision needs. Slower is usually better, faster means you'll get your part faster. 50mm/s usually is a good place to be good a good looking print. You don't need to adjust the flow rate manually if you adjust your print speed this is all pre-calculated.
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