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Result "melted", how to adjust the settings?

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I tried printing this gear (width 7,7mm) many times:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BwHPHYaSteKVMEdjUnRybXNNZG8/view?usp=sharing

With PLA and PVA support. Always some different problem. However now the current problem is that the top of the gear "melted" out of shape. Should be just straight and neat but it deformed and is too big. I need to print many of these so I want to find the perfect settings. What should I adjust to prevent this melting? Or what are the best possible settings for a very, very precise end result?

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This is a very common problem and very easily fixed. Just print more than one at the same time (in all-at-once mode). So place at least 3 of these into cura and look at slice view and make sure it's printing the first layer of all 3 together, then the second layer of all three (not one-at-a-time mode where it prints one, then starts the second).

This allows the top layers in that small area to cool while printing the next one. also make sure the fans are at 100%.

Also it's slightly better to place them in a line along the X axes (left to right) as that way a fan is more likely to blow on one of the parts that isn't currently being printed.

Even just placing two of these down will make a huge difference.

Also they will probably print faster. Right now you are probably hitting the "minimum layer time" on every layer but with two it can increase the speed.

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Thank you, I will try that. However, meanwhile I tried another machine and already got so much better results. The original machine was Ultimaker 3 Extended with PVA. The second machine was Ultimaker 2+ without PVA, building the support below with PLA. The result was much, much sharper and no significant melting problem, without changing the fan settings. I think the UM3 I tried was in a bad shape. The nozzle got clogged every once in a while and the filament also randomly got stuck without any visible congestions. Also the PLA support worked better than the PVA support, although this probably is also due to the UM3 being in bad shape.

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